The modern management of cerebral AVMs is based on three therapeutic modalities
- conventional micro neurosurgery
- endovascular embolization
- stereotactic radiosurgery
Problems related to an AVM are headaches and seizures while at least 15% of the population at detection have no symptoms at all. These abnormal bunch of blood vessels may rupture and there is bleeding within the brain (intracranial hemorrhage) which is first symptom in more than 50% patients. Embolization is the occlusion of blood vessels in order prevent their rebleeding or to relieve severe disabling symptoms. Glue or glue-like material (onyx) are injected selectively into AVM nidus using microcather under flouroscopic guidance. Sometimes, complete embolization may not be possible due to various factors, in such cases residual AVM may require radiotherapy or surgical excision.