Vascular malformations of the brain are an umbrella term for at least six conditions in which blood vessels of the brain are affected. Such malformations are classified into several types in which the symptoms, severity, and causes vary. These types of VMB are
- Arteriovenous malformations (AVM), abnormal arteries and veins
- Cavernous malformations (CM), enlarged blood-filled spaces
- Venous Angiomas (VA), abnormal veins
- Telangiectasias (TA), enlarged capillary-sized vessels
- Vein of Galen malformations (VGM)
- Mixed malformations (MM)
Dural arterio-venous fistulas, spinal vascular malformations, vein of Galen malformations can be treated endovascularly. Certain facial lymphangiomas and hemangiomas can be treated by direct puncturing and injecting sclerosant agents under flouroscopic guidance, hence avoiding major surgeries. While in some facial vascular malforamtions and vascular tumours, pre surgical emoblization avoids excessive blood loss during surgery.
Certain endovascular therapeutic procedure like chemotherapy injection into ophthalmic artery in retinoblastoma, chemotherapy injection into basilar artery in diffuse pontine glioma are rapidly emerging and set to be important modality of cancer treatment in future.